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Sunday 01 September 2002

Successful treatment of pure red cell aplasia with a single dose of rituximab in a child after major ABO incompatible peripheral blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acquired aplastic anemia.

By: Maschan AA, Skorobogatova EV, Balashov DN, Pashanov ED, Trakhtman PE, Schipitzina IP, Skvortsova YV, Rumiantzev AG.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2002 Sep;30(6):405-7

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a well-known although infrequent hematologic complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. PRCA occurs in cases of major ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient and is believed to be due to inhibition of donor erythroid progenitors by residual host isohemagglutinins. We report a 10-year-old boy with post-hepatitis aplastic anemia (AA) who developed PRCA after HLA-matched familial peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (SCT) following conditioning with Cph 200 mg/kg + ATG 90 mg/kg. Granulocyte engraftment occurred on day +18, platelet engrafted on day +40, while reticulocytopenia at 0% persisted until day +118, and erythroid precursors were totally absent from bone marrow. After a single dose of rituximab 200 mg/m(2)administered on day +118 PRCA resolved and on day +132 the reticulocytes rose to 5.7%. On day +139 the Hb reached 137 g/l and the erythroid lineage in BM increased to 21%. We conclude that due to the rapid recovery from PRCA and lack of side effects, rituximab should be tried as first-line treatment of PRCA after allo-SCT.

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